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(13) Once the receiver has retrieved the signal, he first decodes it, to obtain the document (i.e. the article, or the relevant part of an article) it contains. (14) Then he reads the document, reconstructing the information underlying it.2.13 Comprehensive reading involves following the discourse linearly from the beginning to the end. In their field of interest, however, scientists often read selectively : they usually neither study the article as a whole, nor in the prescribed order [Dillon et al., 1989].
(15) The receiver `absorbs' the information (by fitting it into his own conceptual representation of the universe), and (16) evaluates it. (17) If it is satisfactory, he incorporates the information in his own research. This can involve increasing his personal knowledge, as well as a concrete utilisation of specific information.
Generating new scientific information, the scientist now exchanges his role of receiver for that of sender, which brings us back to (1).