Atomic number:                  17     
    Standard atomic weight:          35.4527
    Symbol:                         Cl     
    Group number:                    17     

chlorine


General information

    Standard state:  gas
    Colour:          yellowish green
    Discoveror:      Carl William Scheele
    Date discovered: 1774
    Discovered at:   Sweden
    Meaning of name: Gr. chloros, greenish yellow

Radii /pm

    Atomic:                99.4
    van der Waals:        175
    Covalent:              99
    Metallic:         

Valence shell orbital Rmax

    s:          68.2
    p:          76.1
    d:     
    f:     

Ionic radii

    Ion       Coordination number and geometry
              4(tet)    4(sq pl)  6(oct,ls) 6(oct,hs) 8         Pauling
    M(-III)                                                               
    M(-II)                                                                
    M(-I)                         167                           181       
    M(I)                                                        49        
    M(II)     77                                                          
    M(III)                                                                
    M(IV)     55                  69                                      
    M(V)                          68                            59        
    M(VI)                                                                 
    M(VII)    22                  41                            26        
    M(VIII)                                                     26        


Electronegativities

    Pauling:                3.16
    Sanderson:              3.28
    Allred Rochow:          2.83


Effective nuclear charge

    Slater:                 6.1
    Clementi:               6.12
    Froese-Fischer:         6.79


Bond enthalpies /KJ per mol

Single bond enthalpies

    M-F           142
    M-Cl          240
    M-Br          216
    M-I           208
    M-M       

Diatomics bond enthalpies in MM and MX

    MM             X                X                X
    242.933        N                O   272          F   256.3     
                   P   289          S                Cl  242.933   
                   As  448          Se  322          Br  218.8     
                   Sb               Te               I   211.3     
                   Bi  301       


Temperatures /K

    melting:              172.2
    boiling:              238.6
    critical:             417
    Debye:            
    superconduction:  
    m.p. hydride:         158.35
    b.p. hydride:         188.25
    m.p. fluoride:        119.15

Enthalpies /kJ per mol

    fusion:                 6.41
    vaporisation:          20.42
    atomisation:          121.7
    bond:                 242.933

Ionization enthalpies /kJ per mol

    1st                  1251.1
    2nd                  2297
    3rd                  3822
    4th                  5158
    5th                  6540
    6th                  9362
    7th                 11018
    8th                 33605
    9th                 38598
    10th                43962
    11th                51067
    12th                57118
    13th                63362
    14th                72340
    15th                78096
    16th               352991
    17th               380757


Isotopic abundances

In the below list, the first number is the nominal mass number, the second the percentage abundance of that isotope, and the third is the accurate mass for that isotope.

     35          75.77       34.968852 
     36           0          35.968306 
     37          24.23       36.965903 


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