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Table of Contents
Index
Glossary
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Next: Stage III: Acquiring Up: A model of the Previous: Stage I: Creating

Stage II: Disseminating

(5) The first activity in this stage is the collection of encoded documents for publication. The editor of a particular  journal can actively solicit them, or the author can submit them directly. The encoded document can be made public and archived immediately, in a `preprint' archive [Ginsparg, 1996]. In communication via articles published in a journal, however, more value is added first.2.8

(6) For scientific quality control, the correctness of the information and the clarity of the presentation are judged in some form of peer review. In principle, quality control does not have to take place before publication. Comments and `quality labels' could be added to the article after publication. Different forms of peer review are proposed, for example, in [Harnad, 1991]. If this control takes place before publication, feedback can lead to an improvement of the article to be the published article. The editor of the journal may further enhance the quality. (7) Indexing also adds value to the document. The document can be characterised using controlled index terms chosen from a thesaurus, for example, or using free terms.

The next activities are not concerned with the scientific content of the article but with other added value. Usually, these mainly technical, administrative and financial tasks are performed by publishers and librarians.2.9 (8) Value can be added to the technical aspects of the presentation of the document and its encoding in a signal. The presentation can be professionalised and the document can be encoded (in different steps) in several types of signals. The technical aspects of editing and presentation involve, for example, visual design, typesetting, printing and format conversion. (9) The publication , in the literal sense of making the information public, then allows the audience to become aware of the existence of the information. At this stage, the (encoded)  article can be distributed directly to the intended readership. However, it is usually transmitted to a (physical or digital) library, from which the receiver can retrieve it immediately after publication or later. (10) Thus, value is added by archiving the article for future reference.



Next: Stage III: Acquiring Up: A model of the Previous: Stage I: Creating